Virtual Reality

We designed and implemented an immersive VR access simulation, where the user is surrounded by a virtual operating theatre, including medical equipment and staff, leading to an immersive training possibility where the user feels present in the virtual OR. Patient-specific Digital Imaging of the intracranial circulation and cranium can be transferred to the workstation, enabling simulation of even the most demanding neurosurgical interventions. One of the main advantages of virtual reality training systems is the possibility to undo and redo steps without destroying models. This makes VR less resource-intensive than cadaver or physical simulations. Furthermore, it is an appropriate training for novice neurosurgeons and medical students with the goal to improve anatomical understanding and to become aware of the importance of the right craniotomy hole and correct approach to feel better prepared for real surgery. Since VR technology provides an immersive user experience by simulating human senses such as vision, touch, and sound, it provides unique advantages in neurosurgical training and education. With so-called haptic feedback devices, we can mimic the tactile properties of tissue. Haptics is to touching, as visual is to seeing and auditory is to hearing. Haptic feedback devices allow humans to “feel” computer-generated virtual objects. The virtual experience becomes more realistic than ever before.

Augmented Reality

Neurosurgery is heavily dependent on images for preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. To provide an even more life-like experience, we use augmented reality devices to plan, simulate and train for complex neurosurgical operations. By superimposing three- dimensional virtual objects to real objects, augmented reality cab serve as a virtual map as they dissect and explore the patient’s anatomy. This tool can boost the confidence of neurosurgeons in performing delicate neurosurgical procedures.

Mixed Reality

Mixed Reality is the next step in implementing virtual technologies into neurosurgical education. It combines the virtual experience with the real world. Physical and digital models coexists and create a whole new experience of simulation. The user acts in both dimensions at the same time and can influence the virtual experience by operating on the synthetic model.



Department of Neurosurgery


Otto-von-Guericke University

Leipziger Str. 44, Haus 65

39120 Magdeburg,

Saxony-Anhalt, Germany